Foreign policies consist of aims and measures that are intended to guide government, decisions and actions with regard to external affairs, particularly relations with foreign countries managing foreign relations calls for carefully considered plans of action that are adapted to foreign interests and concerns i.e goals at the government. Government officials in leading positions include presidents, prime ministers, foreign ministers defense ministers finance ministers and so along with their closest advisers are usually the key policymakers.
Policy makers involves a means end way at thinking about goals and actions at government. It is an instrumental concept for example the Kenyan government and many African countries who are suffering from international terrorism need to set strategic way of overcoming the fight against international terrorism, since it is an international phenomenon, hence co-operations among states is vital, therefore they need to ask themselves a fundamental question which is;
What is the problem or goal and what solution or approaches are available to address it?
Instrumental analysis involves thinking at the best available decision or course of action e.g giving correct advice to make things happen according to one’s requirements or interests. The analyst seeks to provide knowledge that is of same relevance to the policy makers. It involves calculating the measures and methods that will most likely enable him or her to reach a goal, and the costs and benefits of different available policy options. It may extend to recommending the best course to enable a government to solve its foreign policy goals. At that point policy analysis becomes not only instrumental but also prescriptive since it advocates what ought to be done.