The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to theRevolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and thePrague Springin 1968. In the aftermath of theIraq Warit was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[The first specific use of the termArab Springas used to denote these events may have started with the American political journalForeign Policy.Political scientistMarc Lynchdescribed "Arab Spring" as "a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article" forForeign Policy magazine.Joseph MassadonAl Jazeerasaid the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling the movement's aims and goals" and directing it towards western-styleliberal democracy.When Arab Spring protests in some countries were followed by electoral success forIslamistparties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring"and "Islamist Winter".
Some observers have also drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and theRevolutions of 1989(also known as the "Autumn of Nations") that swept throughEastern Europeand theSecond World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness ofcivil resistance, and the organizational role ofInternet-based technologies in the Arab revolutions.
he wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels.The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has, however, been much debated.Protests took place both in states with a very high level of Internet usage (such asBahrainwith 88% of its population online in 2011) and in states with some of the lowest Internet penetration (YemenandLibya)
The use of social media platforms more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests, with the exception of Libya.Some researchers have shown howcollective intelligence,dynamics of the crowdinparticipatory systemssuch as social media, have immense power to support a collective action – such as foment a political change.As of 5 April 2011, the number of Facebook users in the Arab world surpassed 27.7 million people.Some critics have argued that digital technologies and other forms of communication - videos, cellular phones, blogs, photos, emails, and text messages - have brought about the concept of a 'digital democracy' in parts of North Africa affected by the uprisings.
Facebook, Twitter and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular. Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they usedFacebookto organize protests and spread awareness.This large population of young Egyptian men referred to themselves as "the Facebook generation", exemplifying their escape from their non-modernized past.Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. Social media sites were a platform for different movements formed by many frustrated citizens, including the 2008 "April 6 Youth Movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive Youth of Tunisia".
During the Arab Spring, people createdpageson major social medias websites to raise awareness about alleged crimes against humanity, such as police brutality in the Egyptian Revolution.
Libya’s Civil War can be traced back to the Arab Spring of 2012; the widespread pro-democratic protests resulting in the overthrowing of many countries leaders, including the leader of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi.Violence broke out between those loyal to Gaddafi and pro-democratic protesters. The protests increased in violence and spread across the country, beginning in February 2011 when security forces fired on the crowd in Benghazi, whom had been protesting.Protests began in response to the arrest of human rights lawyer Fethi Tarbel.The protesters called for Qaddafi to step down and for the release of political prisoners. Rebels to the violent attack in Benghazi responded by forming their own government, the National Transitional Council.
In response, the LAS and the Global Community stepped forward in an attempt to prevent full-scale civil war. The Security Council passed sanctions against Libya’s leader Muammar Gaddafi, freezing his assets and enacting a travel ban and arms embargo.The International Criminal Court (ICC) stepped in in an attempt to prevent further violence.TheUnited States, theEuropean Union(EU), and a number of other countries also imposed sanctions.On February 28 the United States announced that it had frozen at least $30 billion in Libyan assets.France granted the National Transitional Council official recognition as Libya’s government.TheArab League passed a resolution on March 13, endorsing a no-fly zone over Libya to be enacted by the United Nations Security Council.NATO involved itself in the civil war, and successfully killed Gaddhafi on 20 October 2011.
Civil war became certain when the protests and attacks became a three-way battle. Reports show a connection between members of Libyan rebel groups and Islamic terrorist groups, such as Al Queda.The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group--which fought Gaddhafi in the 2011 Libyan war and continues to fight in the 2014 Libyan civil war--has direct connections to the terrorist group Al-Queda, including the known Al-Queda membership of some of the LIFG’s top ranking members.In March 2011, the LIFG pledged its support to the National Transitional Council and joined its ranks.
After the increased violence, many Libyan citizens fled the country; tens of thousands fled across the Libya-Tunisia border to escape the rebel and pro-Gaddhafi forces.Media outlets reported that Almost 10,000 people fled their homes after violence erupted throughout the country.Reports suggested that the people of Tawergha were subjected to ethnic cleansing provoked by racism and vengeance from both Misratan and pro-Gaddafi supporters alike.In the aftermath there were many needs by those refugees, who had yet to return to Libya, as civil war continued after Gaddhafi’s death. The “International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal for 6.4 million to meet the emergency needs for refugees affected by the violent unrest in Libya”According to a report from CIRET-AVT, before the revolution Libya offered employment to many foreigners. Libya has for some time absorbed the unemployed of neighboring states. Many immigrants worked in the petroleum and construction industries. About 3 to 4 million foreigners left the country due to the pressure of the events. 1.5 to 2 million Egyptians, 1 million Sahel, West and Central Africans, 600,000 Sudanese, more than 200,000 Moroccans, more than 100,000 thousand Tunisians, 60,000 Palestinians, 10,000 Algerians, as well as many Turks, Filipinos, Sri Lankans and other Asiatics.Because of these large numbers returning to their native countries--in addition to any possible Libyan refugees--the economies of neighboring countries will continue to worsen during this war.Since the outbreak of protests beginning in March 2011, Syria has been engulfed in violence and loss at the hands of rebel forces and the military presence of President al-Assad. As violent clashes continued throughout the country, Syrian civilians were forced to flee from their homes in what became one of the most severe cases of displacement in recorded history. Over three million refugees have fled the borders of their country into neighboring Member States such as Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. The mass influx of refugees into States such as Lebanon and Jordan has severely impacted these States’s domestic socio-economic infrastructure and a unified Arab response must be developed by the Heads of States.