After the fall of the Soviet Union, the balance of powers shifted from bipolar system through American hegemony to multipolarity. The change in the international system together with the process of globalization brought new challenges to today’s world. First, the fall of the Iron Curtain caused conflicts within the former Eastern Bloc for instance the conflicts in former Yugoslavia presented a great threat to the post-Cold War world. The spread of small – scale conflicts and civil wars have imposed security challenge to the peaceful world until present days.
Consequently, the number of refugees had risen significantly. At the moment Europe is searching for a solution to a huge inflow of migrants especially from Africa. As the Pope Francis said: „Allowing the Mediterranean Sea to become a vast graveyard is intolerable.” What should the European Union do regarding this question? This topic is undoubtedly worth to discuss. However, not only Europe is concerned about immigrants. Almost 4 million Syrians have fled the country during ongoing civil war. Most of these refugees stayed in Turkey (1,761,000), Lebanon (1,183,000) and Jordan (628,000). The Middle East region and Europe are experiencing the refugee crisis of huge extent.
After the Cold War the new conflicts have been increasingly interconnected with private military and security companies fighting in them. So called privatization of war raised many questions regarding the international humanitarian law and legitimacy of using private companies in conflicts.
On the contrary, the environmental issues have presented a slightly different challenge to the world. For a very long period of time there were doubters, who questioned the human impact on the environment. However, we got to the point when it has been scientifically proved that by our actions we influence world surrounding us. The climate change is incontrovertibly occurring. The question is how we will cope with this information, how much we are willing to sacrifice, or whether it is possible to achieve economic growth and decrease environmental degradation. Should we build upon the model of sustainable development? If we continue to change our behavior in such a slow pace as we are now, the environmental issues will soon cause new conflicts.
The new era after the fall of the Berlin Wall imposed in front of us a great number of challenges. Only a small fraction of what the world is nowadays facing is mentioned above. Therefore, the New Security Challenges after the Cold War has been chosen as the main topic of our MuniMUN Conference.