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The labour share of GDP, which represents the proportion of wages and social protection transfers in an economy, provides an aggregate measure of primary income inequality. A shift of income away from labour towards capital has contributed to rising inequality. Preferential treatment for developing countries and the least developed countries in trade can help reduce inequalities by creating more export opportunities. Major developed country markets already offer duty-free market access to the least developed countries on most of their tariff lines. But even when they do not, as in the case of some agricultural products, the average applied tariff rate is often close to zero per cent. [Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2016/75]
Official development assistance and financial flows contribute to reducing inequalities within and among countries. People migrate for many reasons, including better employment opportunities and higher wages. When successful, many migrants send money back to their country of origin to care of family members. [Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2016/75]
The Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals",E/2017/66about this SDG says:
Targets set by SDG 10 are:"Progress in reducing inequality within and among countries has been mixed."
1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average;
2. By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status;
3. Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard;
4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality;
5. Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations;
6. Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions;
7. Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
A) Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements;
B) Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes;
C) By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.
The global indicator framework was developed by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) and agreed to, as a practical starting point at the 47th session of the UN Statistical Commission held in March 2016. The report of the Commission, which included the global indicator framework, was then taken note of by ECOSOC at its 70th session in June 2016. [SDG Indicators - Revised list of global Sustainable Development Goal indicators]
This was only an introduction to SDG 10, so it is up to you to help me spread it around!