Water is one of the most under-appreciated things in the developed world. Humans can not go more than 3-10 days without water and most people, in first world countries, do not even consider the possibility of dying due to dehydration, while many in impoverished countries know the harsh realities of living on little water. In Sub-Saharan Africa more than forty percent of people do not have easy access to clean drinking water.
H2O is a bent molecule that is extremely important to the human body. During cellular respiration, to make energy in the form of ATP, a cell goes through a process with steps entitled Glycolysis, Pre-Krebs, Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain in order to create around 32 ATP to keep the cell running. In order for a cell to complete cellular respiration a cell must have access to one glucose, six oxygen, and six water molecules and suppose one is lacking, the process is halted. The water molecules are not used until the end of the cycle in the Electron Transport Chain, but if they are not present a cell can only go through Glycolysis, which only produces 2 ATP as opposed to the 32 ATP produced by the entire cycle. Water is an extremely vital necessity for the human body to function properly to which many people do not have adequate access.
According to the World Health Organization, 1.7 million people die prematurely due to lack of clean drinking water. Not only does lack of water wreak havoc on one's body but the bacteria and pollutants found in water kill mass amounts of people every year. Unsanitary waters are consumed by people all around the world, who unknowingly invited dangers into their bodies. These bacteria can cause diseases such as Giardia, Salmonella, and E. colli. Even Malaria, which we commonly think of as being spread through a flying mosquito, can be transmitted through the water as mosquitos breed in water. Many children die due to infectious diarrhea which could have been prevented.
Steps have been taken by many NGOs, nongovernmental organizations, to provide clean drinking water to impoverished countries. World Vision is an organization that has taken huge steps towards providing drinking water globally. In 2015, they had reached 2.37 million people with improved access to water. NGOs, such as World Vision, have made large steps towards global access to clean water, but for the people they have yet to reach a different method is needed. The Solar Water Disinfection method is a simple method that is highly practical for places without access. This method requires one to put clear water in a plastic bottle and let it sit in the sun for six hours. The heat from the sun will purify the water. An issue lies within the fact that most people without access to clean water only have access to muddy water, not the clear water required. Joshua Pearce, who discovered this method, worked alongside Brittney Dawney to find that table salt actually has the capabilities to remove mud from water by binding with the clay in the mud to move to the bottle of the container. The water can then be easily strained and left in the sun for six hours. This is done on a small scale as the sun would not be able to heat large amounts of water enough to effectively purefy it.
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